14 MAR 2023
A tribute & memorial website to honour - Lord Louis MOUNTBATTEN, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
LOUIS, 1st EARL MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA
The Last Viceroy of India
Now the War was over, Mountbatten - who held the substantive rank of only a Captain, wanted to return to the sea. The Royal Navy was his life, and he was told that he would be appointed to command the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet, following the successful completion of a Senior Officers’ Technical Course at Portsmouth, but he had more challenges ahead of him.
At the request of their respective Prime Ministers - The Mountbattens were invited to the Dominions of Australia and New Zealand. In March 1946 they were officially welcomed in Canberra by Mountbatten’s cousin - Prince Henry, 1st Duke of Gloucester (1900-1974), the third son of King George V (1865(1910-1936), who had been appointed Governor-General of Australia on 30th January 1945. The people of Australia were wildly excited by their visit and they much to boost post-War morale. They were the talk of society and whilst there, Edwina visited various hospitals and Red Cross units - and it was generally thought that Mountbatten would be appointed Governor-General of Australia upon Prince Henry's term of office ending. However, the politics of the post-War world were changing and his talents were called upon to fulfil another job. He was summonsed to Downing Street by the then Prime Minister - The Rt Hon. (Sir) Clement Attlee, later 1st Earl Attlee (1883-1967) to succeed Field Marshal The Rt Hon. Sir Archibald Wavell, Viscount, later 1st Earl Wavell (1883-1950) to be the next and ultimately the last Viceroy of India. For it was to Mountbatten, that the British Government chose to take on the task of bringing the British Raj to an end and give the people of India the freedom they desired. Of course with a country of over 400 million inhabitants, how to please all the different religious, civil and Princely leaders seemed an impossible job. He understood that there was a real chance of failure and failure was not something that Mountbatten had ever experienced.
A short film (no audio) by Pathé of the ceremonial
of Mountbatten being sworn in as Viceroy of India
Mountbatten & Edwina on the Vice-regal thrones
within the Durball Hall (Throne Room)
of The Viceroy's House, New Delhi
Mountbatten & Edwina in Vice-regal splendour
following his installation as Viceroy of India
With some trepidation, Mountbatten accepted the post of Viceroy of India but he demanded full plenipotentiary powers (ie: to act completely independently of the British Government’s India Office), which Attlee reluctantly agreed to. However, it seemed right to all that a war-hero, with a positive public profile, who was the cousin of the King-Emperor and a great-grandson of Queen Victoria (1819(1837-1901) would be the last Viceroy of India and supervise the sunset of the British Empire, which the British Government had stated must end by June 1948. Mountbatten said at the time - "I want you to regard me not as the last Viceroy winding up the British Raj, but as the first to lead the way to a new India".
The Mountbattens arrived in New Delhi on 22nd March 1947, and said farewell to Viscount Wavell (his predecessor) and his wife. Two days later - in a glorious colourful ceremony full of Vice-regal pomp and pageantry (not seen for many years) within the Durbar Hall (Throne Room) of The Viceroy's House, Mountbatten was sworn-in as the last Viceroy of India and Governor-General of India by The Rt Hon. Sir Patrick Spens, later 1st Lord Spens (1885-1973), the Chief Justice of India - the first time the ceremony was photographed, filmed and witnessed by every day Indians - not just the elite.
Mountbatten & Edwina - the Viceroy & Vicereine of India, seated upon the Vice-regal thrones
within the Durbar Hall (Throne Room) within The Viceroy's House
Upon the Vice-regal throne, Mountbatten - dressed in full Vice-regal robes on top of his Naval uniform, glistening with numerous medals and decorations said - "This is not a normal Viceroyalty on which I am embarking... I believe that every political leader in India feels as I do the urgency of the task before us. It will be no easy matter to succeed Lord Wavell, who has done so much to take India along the path to self-government. I have always had great admiration for him and I will devote myself to finishing the work which he began... I am under no illusion about the difficulty of my task... I shall need the greatest goodwill of the greatest number of people and am asking India today for that goodwill." Mountbatten’s presence was felt from day one, and Mountbatten immediately set to establish dialogue and contact with all the key figures of Indian politics with members from all sides being invited to official functions and traditional Indian cuisine being offered.
The Vice-regal family at the Vice-regal Lodge, Simla - the Summer capital of British India
(left to right) Pamela; Mountbatten, Edwina (feeding her dog - Mizzen)
On 4th June 1947, Mountbatten held a press conference and took his own staff completely by surprise and suddenly announced his idea for the solution of India, with a date of full transfer of powers to take place on 15th August 1947. So instead of fifteen months, they had a matter of just 10 weeks to arrange the mammoth task. Although Mountbatten had always wanted to hand over a unified India, it became clear that the only acceptable solution was to create a separate independent Pakistan in addition to an independent India.
Mountbatten, Viceroy of India at his desk
HE Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
Governor-General of Pakistan (left)
with Mountbatten and Edwina
at the Pakistani Independence ceremony
ABOVE: Jawaharlal Nehru,
the Prime Minister of India (right),
with Mountbatten (later Governor-General of India)
& Edwina at the Indian Independence ceremony
RIGHT: Mohandas K. Gandhi (left)
BELOW: The Mountbattens with Gandhi (centre)
at The Viceroy's House, New Delhi, India in 1947
On 21st June 1948, Mountbatten handed over the office of Governor-General of the Dominion of India to the veteran Indian politician - Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (1878-1972), the first Indian born to hold the office. On the eve of their departure, The Mountbattens were guests of honour at a banquet where their contribution to India was lavishly praised by the Prime Minister - Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964). Nehru was to say - "I wondered how it was that an Englishman and Englishwoman could become so popular in India during this brief period of time".
Edwina making a short speech
at their official 'farewell' dinner at
Government House with a bereft
Jawaharlal Nehru (right),
The Prime Minister of the Dominion of India
Edwina, Mountbatten and Pamela (left)
within the gardens of The Viceroy's House
The flag of Pakistan
The flag of India
As the astrologers indicated that the 15th August 1947 was an inauspicious date, it was decided that Indian independence would date from the last stroke of midnight on 14th August 1947, with a formal ceremony in Delhi. A separate ceremony would then follow in Karachi for the birth of Pakistan. At 8.30am on 15th August 1947, Mountbatten was sworn in as Governor-General of the new Dominion of India, to oversee the transition from British rule. Although the celebrations were joyous, peace was not everlasting. With separation brought thousands of Muslims and Hindus crossing to their chosen new independent land and by 27th August 1947, Mountbatten calculated that over 10 million people were on the move throughout the country. During this period, Mountbatten’s wife Edwina - always referred to as 'Lady Louis', continued her efforts working with refugees and earned the undying love of the people for her untiring devotion. She would go from camp to camp, hospital to hospital and personally would intervene in an effort to improve sanitation.
The Indian sub-continent remained in chaos until the assassination on 30th January 1948 of Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), the great spiritual leader of Indian independence. Gandhi - known as 'Mahatma', had campaigned and protested for independence for India and was opposed to the concept of partition, which contradicted his vision of religious unity. Dr Stanley Wolpert (b.1927) has argued that - "the plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi... who realised too late that his closest comrades and disciples were more interested in power than principle, and that his own vision had long been clouded by the illusion that the struggle he led for India's independence was a non-violent one." In death he brought people together and soon after peace was secured. To show their personal support, Mountbatten, Edwina and Pamela attended Gandhi's funeral.
Edwina, Mountbatten and Pamela
at the funeral ceremony of Mohandas K. Gandhi
Mountbatten taking the final salute
as Governor-General of the Dominion of India,
with Edwina by his side and Pamela (far right)
as they leave Government House, New Delhi
(the former Viceroy's House)
The partition displaced between 10-20 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming calamity in the newly-constituted Dominions. It is often described as one of the largest refugee crises in history. There was large-scale violence, with estimates of the loss of life accompanying or preceding the partition disputed and varying between several hundred thousand and two million.
The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that affects their relationship to this day.
The Prime Minister - Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) said to Mountbatten at their final dinner - "maybe we have made many mistakes, you and we. Historians a generation or two hence will perhaps be able to judge what we have done right and what we have done wrong... we did try to do right, and I am convinced that you tried to do the right thing by India, and therefore many of our sins will be forgiven us and many of our errors also."
Mountbatten & Edwina in the Governor-General's State Landau departing Government House, New Delhi
(and India) for the last time
The Mountbattens left Government House with all the pomp and pageantry one would expect. Mountbatten had arrived in Imperial Vice-regal splendour and was determined that his departure would be equally as memorable. Mountbatten inspected a Guard of Honour and having formally taken his final salute, The Mountbattens left in the open Governor-General's State Landau carriage and headed for the airport with thousands of ordinary Indians shouting their love and admiration for Mountbatten and Edwina along the processional route.
Two days later on 23rd June 1948, The Mountbattens returned to the UK via RAF Northolt, and among the officials awaiting them was Mountbatten’s nephew - Prince Philip, 1st Duke of Edinburgh (1921-2021) and The Rt Hon. (Sir) Clement Attlee, later 1st Earl Attlee (1883-1967), the Prime Minister - who had never really believed that Mountbatten would be successful. Attlee said - "In my opinion no other man could have carried out this tremendous task." Mountbatten said of Edwina - "I never could have done it without Edwina." However, not everyone was so pleased with Mountbatten. Many disagreed with his perceived 'cavalier attitude' towards Indian’s independence, stating that he had sought glory for himself and that his rushed policies were the cause of so much chaos and ultimately the needless death of so many people. Mountbatten knew that his great mentor - The Rt Hon. (Sir) Winston Churchill (1874-1965), the great Wartime Prime Minister, but then the Leader of HM Opposition, was so angry with him that he had accused Mountbatten of "giving away" India and subsequently refused to speak to him. Mountbatten’s answer was - "history will be my judge.”
A short film (limited audio) by Pathé
of the arrival of The Mountbattens
from India to RAF Northolt with Edwina
making a short speech to the awaiting reporters
The arrival of The Mountbattens back to the UK -
(left to right) Prince Philip, 1st Duke of Edinburgh;